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Bibliography of Academical Dress

compiled by Alex Kerr

This Bibliography is in two parts. The Introduction is a brief survey of the key materials on academical dress that are either in print or available in the larger public and university libraries. The Alphabetical list that follows is intended to cover what has been published on the subject since the beginning of the nineteenth century; earlier items are listed if they include engravings that provide important evidence of robes of the period. Successful dissertations submitted for the Fellowship of the Burgon Society, whether published later or not, are listed separately on the Submissions page of the Research section of this website.

Note. Please send any suggestions for corrections or additions to registrar@burgon.org.uk or webmaster@burgon.org.uk (remembering to include "Burgon" somewhere in the subject line).

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Books marked * may be purchased from the Burgon Society Shop.

Back numbers of the Burgon Society Annual and the Transactions of the Burgon Society to Volume 10 are available on-line in the Transactions section of the Burgon Library, and of the Society's newsletter in the Burgon Notes section

You can locate copies of publications in university and major public libraries by searching on COPAC (for UK institutions) and WorldCat (for institutions worldwide). The complete text of some titles can be downloaded in various formats at Internet Archive.


Introduction

The only scholarly general history of academical dress and the standard work on the subject is:

W. N. Hargreaves-Mawdsley, A History of Academical Dress in Europe until the End of the Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963; reprinted Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1978).

The following title contains much useful information and reprints extracts from valuable older material. The author is extremely knowledgable, but his views are often controversial and unsupported by hard evidence, despite the dogmatic style in which he expresses them:

Charles A. H. Franklyn, Academical Dress from the Middle Ages to the Present Day, Including Lambeth Degrees (Lewes: privately printed by W. E. Baxter, Ltd, 1970).

Important articles, written a century ago, give detailed accounts of particular aspects of the subject (extracts from some of this material are reprinted in Franklyn's book, mentioned above) :

E. C. Clark, 'English Academical Costume (Medieval)', Archaeological Journal, 50 (1893), pp. 73-104, 137-49, and 183-209.

N. F. Robinson, 'The Black Chimere of Anglican Prelates', Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 4.3 (1898; reissued in Vol. 4 as a book, 1900), pp. 181-220.

N. F. Robinson, 'The Pileus Quadratus', Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 5.1 (1901; reissued in Vol. 5 as a book, 1906), pp. 1-16.

E. C. Clark, 'College Caps and Doctors' Hats', Archaeological Journal, 61 (No. 241, second series, 11) (1904), pp. 33-73.

The evidence from monumental brasses of academical dress in the Middle Ages, which is very significant, is most usefully studied in:

Herbert Druitt, A Manual of Costume as Illustrated by Monumental Brasses (London: Alexander Moring, 1906; reprinted Bath: Kingsmead Reprints, 1970), Chapter 2.

Although over forty years old, the standard work cataloguing modern academical dress worldwide is still:

Hugh Smith, assisted by Kevin Sheard, Academic Dress and Insignia of the World: Gowns, Hats, Chains of Office, Hoods, Rings, Medals and Other Degree Insignia of Universities and Other Institutions of Learning, 3 vols (Cape Town: A.A. Balkema, 1970).

The following may also be consulted, although it adds little to Smith and Sheard's work:

Frank W. Haycraft, The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities and Colleges, 5th edition, revised and enlarged by Frederick R.S. Rogers, Charles A.H. Franklyn, George W. Shaw and Hugh Alexander Boyd (Lewes: privately printed by W.E. Baxter, Ltd, 1972).

The standard general work on the academic dress of the universities and other bodies in Great Britain and Ireland, including a comprehensive catalogue of current robes, is:

*Nicholas Groves (ed.), Shaw's Academical Dress of British and Irish Universities [3rd edition], 2 vols (London: The Burgon Society, 2011-14). Vol. I: Universities and Other Degree-Awarding Bodies (2011). Vol. II: Non-Degree-Awarding Bodies (2014).

The scheme for classifying current hoods, gowns and caps developed by Nick Groves is now standard for writers on academical dress. The latest version is given on the Classification of Styles page of this website.

In addition, Nick Groves has published a very thorough key to British and Irish hoods:

*Nicholas Groves, Key to the Identification of Academic Hoods of the British Isles, 4th edition (London: Burgon Society, 2010).

For the University of Oxford, the most accessible and informative work on the history of ceremonies and dress remains:

L. H. Dudley Buxton and Strickland Gibson, Oxford University Ceremonies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935).

This can be supplemented by the older (and less reliable):

J. Wells, The Oxford Degree Ceremony (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906).

A useful booklet which catalogues and illustrates current Oxford dress is:

John Venables, Academic Dress of the University of Oxford, 9th edition (Oxford: Shepherd & Woodward, 2009).

For the University of Cambridge, the only accessible work on the history of ceremonies and dress is:

H. P. Stokes, Ceremonies of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1927).

A brief account of the development of Cambridge college undergraduate gowns in the nineteenth century is to be found in:

A. G. Almond, Gowns and Gossip (Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes, 1925).

Other aspects of the history of Cambridge dress are treated in:

J. H. Baker, 'The Dress of the Cambridge Proctors', Costume, 18 (1984), pp. 86-97.

J. H. Baker, 'Doctors Wear Scarlet: The Festal Gowns of the University of Cambridge', Costume, 20 (1986), pp. 33-43.

Booklets which catalogue and illustrate Cambridge dress are:

A. G. Almond, Cambridge Robes for Doctors and Graduates (Cambridge, A. G. Almond, 1909, reprinted with revisions 1921, 1923, 1928, 1934 and 1959).

George W. Shaw, Cambridge University Academical Dress, with Notes on Oxford Academical Dress (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [1992]).

(The late Dr Shaw also prepared a set of addenda to bring this book up to date in 2000.)

Comprehensive illustrated booklets covering the history of academical dress and a description of practice current at the time of publication in two universities have been issued:

*Philip Goff, University of London Academic Dress (London: University of London Press, 1999). A separate sheet is now provided as an insert to show amendments to the London scheme, following the abolition of Convocation in 2003.

Philip Lowe, Manchester Academic Dress: The Origins and Development of Academical Dress at the Victoria University of Manchester, 1880 to the Present Day (Manchester: John Rylands Library, 2002). The recently chartered University of Manchester, formed by the merger of the Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST, has adopted a completely new scheme of robes.

Other British universities' academical dress is treated in:

*Bruce Christianson, Academic Dress in the University of Hertfordshire, 2nd edition (Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire, 2006).

*Colin Fleming, Malachite and Silver: Academic Dress of the University of Stirling (London: Burgon Society, 2009).

Philip Goff, 'Academical Dress in the University of Westminster', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 37-62. The complete correspondence between designer, university and robemakers is used to describe the development of the scheme, discussions and revisions, the first outing of the robes at a degree ceremony and later additions for new awards.

*Nicholas Groves, The Academical Dress of the University of East Anglia (London: Burgon Society, 2005).

A booklet on the dress at Lampeter before it was taken into the University of Wales has been published:

*Nicholas Groves, The Academical Robes of St David's College, Lampeter (1822-1971) (Lampeter: University of Wales, Lampeter, 2001).

New Zealand academical dress is described in:

Noel Cox, 'Academical Dress in New Zealand', *Burgon Society Annual, 2001, pp. 15-24.

A fuller on-line version has also been published.

For the latest research on North American academical dress see:

*Transactions of the Burgon Society, Volume 9 (2009), edited by Stephen L. Wolgast and Alex Kerr. Includes articles on the Intercollegiate Code, its development and departures from it, the robes of Harvard, Princeton and Columbia, and Canadian universities in Nova Scotia.

The following may also be consulted on academical dress in the USA:

Kevin Sheard, Academic Heraldry in America (Marquette: Northern Michigan College Press, 1962).

David A. Lockmiller, Scholars on Parade: Colleges, Universities, Costumes and Degrees (London: Macmillan, 1969).

Eugene Sullivan, An Academic Costume Code and An Academic Ceremony Guide (American Council on Education), reprinted from American Universities and Colleges, 15th edition (Washington, DC, 1997); also available on the American Council of Education website.

Articles on various aspects of academical dress, past and present, have been published in the *Burgon Society Annual and *Transactions of the Burgon Society. Back issues are available from the Burgon Society Shop and on-line in the Transactions section of the Burgon Library.

Some information about the academical dress of particular universities in the English-speaking world can be found in their published calendars. In certain cases this information is reproduced on the universities' websites, some of which can be accessed from our Regulations section.



Alphabetical list

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P R S T U V W Z

A

'Academic Costumes', British Medical Journal, 1910, Vol. II, pp. 202-05 (23 July). A short essay on how to identify the degrees held by medical people from their robes. Includes a section on the origins of academical dress and a full table of cap shapes, and gown and hood colours. A summary of the key paragraphs in the article (with illustrations adapted from Shrimpton's 1885 plate) was published as 'Academic Costumes for Academic Occasions', Tailor and Cutter, 11 August 1910, p. 764, followed by the table from the BMJ, headed 'Medical Academic Dress', 18 August 1910, p. 778.

Ackermann, Rudolph, publisher of several lavish, illustrated titles on the history of the universities and public schools. See Combe, William, and Pyne, William H.

Agar, John Samuel, engravings after Thomas Uwins, used in Ackermann's publications. See Combe, William.

Akpo-Teye, A., 'Academic Dress for the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana' (unpublished dissertation, Manchester Polytechnic, n.d. (c. 1970)). A dissertation, proposing various examples of academic dress for the establishment in question; evidently produced by a Ghanaian graphic designer, then studying at Manchester Polytechnic. 75-page photocopied typescript, with many (rather poorly reproduced) black-and-white illustrations.

Almond, A. G., Cambridge Robes for Doctors and Graduates (Cambridge: A.G. Almond, 1909, reprinted 1921, 1923 and 1928; revised 1934, reprinted 1959). A booklet giving an extract from the Ordinances on academical dress and photographs, some coloured, to illustrate each type of gown and cap.

Almond, A. G., Gowns and Gossip (Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes, 1925). A small booklet containing anecdotes and some material on the introduction of new undergraduate gowns at certain Cambridge colleges in the early nineteenth century.

Almond, A. G., College Gowns, 2nd edition (Cambridge, 1926). A booklet in a format similar to the author's Cambridge Robes, showing the undergraduate gowns used at different Cambridge colleges.

Anderson, Douglas, 'Academic Dress', The Union Recorder (Sydney University), 44, number 2 (12 March 1964), pp. 22-24, and number 3 (19 March 1964), pp. 38-40. A brief survey of the history of academical dress, followed by an account of robes in the University of Sydney in particular and Australia in general.

Apin, Siegmund Jacob, Vitae et effigies procancellariorum Academiae Altorfinae ... (Nuremberg and Altdorf: Tauber, 1721). Contains two engravings of chancellors of Nuremberg University in academical dress.

Apin, Siegmund Jacob, Vitae professorum philosophiae, qui a condita Academia Altorfina ad hunc usque diem claruerunt, etc. (Nuremberg and Altdorf: Tauber, 1728). Includes several half-length engravings of professors at Nuremberg and Aldorf in academical dress.

Armagost, Robert, 'University Uniforms: The Standardization of Academic Dress in the United States', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 138-55.

Atchley, E. G. Cuthbert F., 'The Hood as an Ornament of the Minister at the Time of His Ministrations in Quire and Elsewhere', Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 4.5 (1900), pp. 313-28.

B

Baker, J. H., 'The Dress of the Cambridge Proctors', Costume, 18 (1984), pp. 86-97. Treats the contemporary dress of the Proctors and considers the possible origins of the ruff. Illustrated.

Baker, J. H., 'Doctors Wear Scarlet: The Festal Gowns of the University of Cambridge', Costume, 20 (1986), pp. 33-43. Treats the contemporary dress of doctors and gives an account of its history. Illustrated.

Baker, Richard, 'The Academic Dress of the University of Hull 1954 to the Present Day, and Including the Hull York Medical School from 2003', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 11 (2011), pp. 30-58.

Baldwin, David J. P., '"Having Dignities ... ": Academic Attire as a Component of the Livery of the Chapel Royal', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 7 (2007), pp. 106-41.

Barker, Sally, Dressing by Degrees: An Exhibition about the Academic Dress of the University of Oxford (Oxford: Oxfordshire County Council Leisure & Arts, Museum Services, 1988). A single sheet folded as a leaflet to accompany an exhibition mounted in Oxford and Woodstock, 1988-89. A sensible, very brief account of Oxford dress with illustrations of items displayed in the exhibition.

Baty, Thomas, Academic Colours (Tokyo: Kenkyusha Press, 1934). A catalogue, inaccurate in places, of the hoods of universities in the English-speaking world at that time, with some account of previous colour schemes and brief notes on faculty colours in continental European institutions. The author adds some personal comments, expressing opinions not always based on hard evidence.

Baxter, Frank C., and Walters, Helen, Caps, Gowns and Commencements (Chicago: E. R. Moore, 1969). An updated and expanded version of Helen Walters's 1939 booklet providing a brief history of academical dress in England, and the Intercollegiate Code and commencement practice in the US. Illustrated with reproductions of old engravings and modern photographs.

Beaumont, Edward T., Ancient Memorial Brasses (London: Oxford University Press, 1913). One of the standard general works on the subject, which includes a section, with photographs, on academical dress on brasses.

Beaumont, Edward T., Academical Habit Illustrated by Ancient Memorial Brasses (Oxford: privately printed, 1928). A duplicated typescript; there is a copy in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. An essential text on the subject, including a good number of illustrations, although the identification of the various items of dress is not always accurate or consistent.

Becmann, J. C., Notitia Universitatis Francofurtanae: una cum iconibus personarum aliquot illustrium, aliorum virorum egregiorum, qui eam praesentia sue ac meritis ... (Frankfurt/Oder: J. Schrey and J.C. Hartmann, 1707). A brief history of the University of Frankfurt an der Oder and biographies of professors and other dignitaries, with fine engravings of half-length portraits, many in academical dress. A useful body of evidence for German dress of the period.

Beeverell, James, Les Délices de la Grand' Bretagne et de l'Irlande, 1st edition (Leiden: Van der Aa, 1707). Includes copper engraved plates of academical dress after Loggan by Pierre Van der Aa. 2nd, enlarged edition (Leiden: Van der Aa, 1727).

Belting, Natalia Maree, The History of Caps and Gowns (Champaign, IL: Collegiate Cap & Gown, 1956).

Borkowsky, Ernst, Das alte Jena und seine Universität: eine Jubiläumsgabe zur Universitätsfeier (Jena: Eugen Diederichs, 1908). A history of the University of Jena illustrated with numerous reproductions of old engravings, several of them showing early university officers' robes, academical dress and student headgear.

Boven, David T., 'American Universities' Departure from the Academic Costume Code', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 156-74. Examines the trend for US universities to adopt non-Intercollegiate Code gowns for doctorates, classifies into five categories the ways this is done, and concludes with Stanford University as a case study.

Boven, David T., 'A Touch of Colour: Surveying Variation in American Academic Dress and a System of Categories for Departures', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 86-102.

Brennan, John L., 'The Robes of the Medical Royal Colleges and Other Societies: Medical Education outside the Universities', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 7 (2007), pp. 75-105.

Brewer, Michael H. L., 'Academic Dress in Canterbury', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 11 (2011), pp. 8-29. This article examines the history and development of the academic dress of the two universities in Canterbury, the University of Kent and Canterbury Christ Church University.

Brightman, F. E., 'Dress of the Clergy', in Dictionary of the Christian Church, ed. S.L. Ollard and G. Crosse, 2nd edition (Oxford: Mowbray, 1919), pp. 181-83.

Brightman, F. E. See also Günther, R.T.

Brightwell, Giles, 'Robes of Yesteryear in Durham', Burgon Notes, 16 (Spring 2011), pp. 3-6. A report on a discovery of long-redundant robes at Durham University.

Bringemeier, M., Priester- und Gelehrtenkleidung. Tunika, Sutane, Schaube, Talar: ein Beitrag zu einer geistesgeschichtlichen Kostümforschung, Beihefte zur Rheinischwestfälische Zeitschrift für Volkskunde , 1 (Münster, 1974). A published dissertation on the relationship between academical and ecclesiastical dress in Germany.

*Burgon Society Annual (London: Burgon Society, 2001-04). Back issues are available from the Burgon Society Shop and on-line in the Transactions section of the Burgon Library.

Burgon Notes (London: Burgon Society, 2002- ). An occasional newletter.

Buxton, L. H. Dudley, and Gibson, Strickland, Oxford University Ceremonies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1935). Pages 19-48 deal specifically with academical dress. An essential text on Oxford dress and ceremonies.

C

Campbell, Una, Robes of the Realm: 300 Years of Ceremonial Dress (London: Michael O'Mara Books for Ede & Ravenscroft, Ltd, 1989). Includes a chapter entitled 'Academic Gowns', pp. 105-09, which is unfocused and inaccurate in several details, but includes a few interesting colour photographs.

Cant, Ronald G., The University of St Andrews: A Short History (Edinburgh and London: Oliver & Boyd, 1946; 2nd edition, 1970). Contains useful information about the early use of academical dress in Scotland and the discussions leading to the introduction of a new scheme of robes at St Andrews, including hoods, in the 1860s.

Casey, Arthur B., 'Academic Dress: Personal Reminiscences', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 151-55. Includes an account of meetings with Franklyn, Hargreaves-Mawdsley and Shaw.

Cellius, Erhard, Imagines professorum Tubingensium, 1596, edited by Hansmartin Decker-Hauff and Wilfried Setzler, 2 vols (Sigmaringen: Thorbecke, 1981). Vol. I is a facsimile of Cellius's work, which is profusely illustrated with woodcuts of University of Tübingen professors, several of them in academical dress. Vol. II comprises a commentary and the text translated into modern German.

Celma-Panek, Jerzy, Akademickie zwyczaje, ceremonial, insygnia, Warz. 'Tamka', 1 (Warsaw: Akademia Medyczna, 1979). Some account of the academical robes worn by officers in the Faculty of Medicine at Warsaw, with photographs.

Cheung Salisbury, Matthew, '"By Our Gowns Were We Known": The Development of Academic Dress at the University of Toronto', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 7 (2007), pp. 11-38.

Christianson, Bruce, Academic Dress in the University of Hertfordshire, 1st edition (Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire, 1993). A booklet describing the scheme of robes, fully illustrated in colour photographs. Also includes a section entitled 'The Achievement of Arms of the University of Hertfordshire' by Brian Piggott.

Christianson, Bruce, 'The Evolution of the Oxford Simple Shape', *Burgon Society Annual, 2002, pp. 30-36.

Christianson, Bruce, 'Oxford Blues: The Search for the Origins of the Lay Bachelors' Hood', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 24-28.

Christianson, Bruce, 'In the Pink: The Strange Case of Trinity College Dublin', *Burgon Society Annual, 2004, pp. 53-58. It is widely believed that the MA hood at TCD used to be lined with pink. How did this come about and why was it changed to blue in the mid-nineteenth century?

Christianson, Bruce, 'Lined with Gold: London University and the Colour of Science', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 80-89.

*Christianson, Bruce, Academic Dress in the University of Hertfordshire, 2nd edition (Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire, 2006). This completely recast, revised and extended edition includes a brief history of academical dress as well as a comprehensive catalogue of University of Hertfordshire robes, illustrated throughout by colour photographs.

Christianson, Bruce, 'Doctors' Greens', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 6 (2006), pp. 44-48. At one time, doctors sometimes wore green robes on formal occasions, as did judges and bishops.

Christianson, Bruce, 'Have You Seen This Fellow?', Burgon Notes, 5 (May 2007), p. 1. An early nineteenth-century portrait of a young man wearing a black gown and a hood with a pink lining, possibly an indication of the colour used by an Oxford MA at this period or a rare piece of evidence that Dublin indeed then used pink for its MAs.

Christianson, Bruce, 'A Purple Passion? Queen's College Oxford and the Blood of the Lord', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 63-71. An inquiry into what was meant by 'pallium' in a college statute of 1341 and what colour the garment was to be.

Christianson, Bruce, and Groves, Nicholas, 'Loggan Revisited: 1. Doctors of Music', Burgon Notes, 1 (June 2002), pp. 4-6. A brief examination of the DMus/MusD figure in Loggan's engravings of 1675 and 1690.

Christianson, Bruce, and Groves, Nicholas, 'The Origins of Lampeter Miniver', Burgon Notes, February 2008, p. 2. Note showing that black spots were added to the white fur for the BA hood specifically to differentiate it from those of Oxford and Cambridge.

Christianson, Bruce, and Groves, Nicholas, 'What is the Relationship between the London and Cambridge Hood Patterns?', Burgon Notes, February 2008, p. 3. Note suggesting that the Cambridge shape with square corners derives from the London shape with rounded corners and not the other way round.

Christianson, Bruce, et al, 'Loggan Revisited: 2. The BA Robes of Oxford and Cambridge Compared', Burgon Notes, 2 (March 2003), pp. 4-6.

Clark, Andrew, The Life and Times of Anthony Wood, Antiquary, of Oxford, 1632-1695, Described by Himself; Collected from His Diaries and Other Papers, Oxford Historical Society, 5 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891-1900, reprinted 1991-99). Contains numerous observations about Oxford academical dress in the seventeenth century; these can be located by using the analytical Index III (Academical) in Vol. V.

Clark, E. C., 'English Academical Costume (Medieval)', Archaeological Journal, 50 (1893), pp. 73-104, 137-49, and 183-209. A pioneering scholarly study of the subject. Clark's identification of some items of medieval academical dress from the textual and pictorial evidence is questioned by Hargreaves-Mawdsley (following Brightman).

Clark, E. C., 'College Caps and Doctors' Hats', Archaeological Journal, 61 (No. 241, second series, 11) (1904), pp. 33-73. A very thorough, academic study of the topic.

Clark, E. C. (?), 'Divinity Degrees: An Historical Sketch: The Ancient Ceremonial', Church Times, 8 and 15 November 1912.

Cohen, E. J., History of Academic Caps, Gowns and Hoods: The Intercollegiate Bureau of Academic Wear (Philadelphia: National Academic Cap & Gown Co., 1940).

Combe, William, History of the University of Oxford (London: Ackermann, 1814). Includes plates by Henry Meyer, after William Owen (frontispiece: Grenville as Chancellor), and John Samuel Agar, after Thomas Uwins (seventeen coloured aquatint costume plates in line and stipple of academical dress). Photographs of the engravings can be viewed on English Heritage's ViewFinder website by entering 'Agar' in the search box.

Combe, William, Costume of the Members of the University of Oxford (London: Ackermann, 1815). The text of Combe's chapter on academical dress from The History of the University of Oxford, with the plates, issued as a separate volume.

Combe, William, History of the University of Cambridge (London: Ackermann, 1815). Includes plates by Henry Meyer, after a drawing by R.W. Satchwell, after a painting by J. Opie (frontispiece: Duke of Gloucester as Chancellor), and John Samuel Agar, after Thomas Uwins (fifteen coloured aquatint costume plates in line and stipple of academical dress).

Concerning Caps, Gowns and Hoods (Albany NY: Cotrell & Leonard, n.d.[c. 1902]). A catalogue booklet advertising Cotrell & Leonard's range of robes and providing a brief explanation of the origins of US dress. Illustrated with photographs. Periodically updated, each issue being distinguished by its 'Bulletin' number.

Cooper, Jonathan C., 'The Scarlet Gown: History and Development of Scottish Undergraduate Dress', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 10 (2010), pp. 8-42.

Cooper, Jonathan C., 'The Dress of Rectors at the Scottish Universities', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 46-62.

Courtney, W. P., 'Cambridge Academic Costume about 1820', Notes & Queries, 5th ser., 9 (1878), p. 505.

Cox, Noel, 'Academical Dress in New Zealand', *Burgon Society Annual, 2001, pp. 15-24. An abridged version of his on-line work of the same title.

Cox, Noel, 'Lambeth Degree Academical Dress', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 64-75.

Cox, Noel, 'Tudor Sumptuary Laws and Academical Dress: An Act against Wearing of Costly Apparel 1509 and An Act For Reformation of Excess in Apparel 1533', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 6 (2006), pp. 15-43.

Crawford, Kenneth, 'The Cutting Edge of Academe: Trends in the Manufacture of Academical Dress', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 60-80. A practical, detailed description, fully illustrated, of how gowns and hoods are made.

Crawford, Kenneth, 'On the Making of the American Doctoral Gown', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 175-82.

Cunningham, Daniel John, The Evolution of the Graduation Ceremony: Being the Graduation Address to the Graduates in Medicine in the University of Edinburgh, July 1904 (Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1904). A scholarly essay followed by thirty pages of appendices containing useful notes on past and contemporary features of graduation ceremonies in a wide range of European universities, with several incidental references to academical dress.

D

Dalton, B. J., Symbols & Ceremonial: The Arms, Academic Dress, and Mace of James Cook University (Dept of History & Politics, James Cook University, n.d.?).

Dauvillier, Jean, 'Les Costumes des anciennes universités françaises', in Actes du 1er Congrès International d'Histoire du Costume, Venise, 31 août-7 septembre 1952 (Venice: Centro Internazionale delle Arti e del Costume, 1955), pp. 254-61. Deals briefly with academical dress in the Middle Ages and in more detail with particular developments in the various French universities from the sixteenth century to the Revolution. The author identifies six geographical areas, each with one or more universities and each displaying its own evolution in the features of academical dress. It seems that Hargreaves-Mawdsley did not know Dauvillier's work.

Dauvillier, Jean, 'Origine et histoire des costumes universitaires français', Annales de la Faculté de Droit de Toulouse, 6 (1958), pp. 3-41. A revised and expanded version of the author's article in Actes du 1er Congrès International d'Histoire du Costume, with an additional section on contemporary French academical dress and four pages of plates.

Davis, George, Oxford University Robes (Oxford: George Davis, 1902- ). A series of twenty-five colour postcards. Interesting as an informal pictorial record: lay bachelors' hoods are grouped differently from in the later twentieth century; and the BA and MA hoods are changed from Oxford plain shape to Burgon shape for the reissue of c. 1905.

Davis, George, Cambridge University Robes (Oxford: George Davis, c. 1910). A series of eight colour postcards. Comprises the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, DD, MD, MA, BA, Trinity College undergraduate, and Clare College undergraduate.

Davis, K. McR., Academical Dress: Its History and Origin, University of Durham Junior Union Society, Selected Papers, 3 (Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Durham Junior Union Society, 1882). Transcript of a short paper given to the Society in February 1882. Remarkable for the use at so early a date of the terms full and simple to distinguish hood shapes.

Delitzsch, F. J., Die akademische Amtstracht und ihre Farben (1859). The text of a lecture on faculty colours in the Universities of Würzburg and Erlangen. Republished in English as 'Academic Official Dress and Its Colours' in a collection of the author's writings: Iris: Studies in Colour and Talks about Flowers, translated by A. Cusin (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1889), Chapter 4, pp. 77-97.

Delpech, François Séraphin, costume plate: 'No. 341. Costume du Grand Maitre [sic] de l'Université / 1810.'

Delvit, Philippe, Toiles, gravures, fusain et sanguine ...: une galerie de portraits à l'Université (Toulouse: Presses de l'Université des sciences sociales - Presses UT1, 2006). A remarkable collection of about sixty portraits from the Law Faculty at the University of Toulouse, almost all in full academical dress, each accompanied by a brief biographical note.

Dickson, Neil, 'Tradition and Humour: The Academic Dress of the University of Glasgow', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 10-35.

Dighton, Robert and Richard, hand-coloured copper engravings forming a series of caricatures of Oxford and Cambridge academics, etc., mostly entitled 'A View from ...' (London: Dighton, 1807-08).

Dillemann, Georges, 'Le Costume du corps professoral pharmaceutique', Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie, 17 (1964), pp. 1-14. An article on the dress established under the First Empire in France for faculties of medicine, developments for faculties of pharmacy, dress and undress robes (grand et petit costumes), and dress for lecturers (maîtres de conférence). Includes plates of two deans of faculties of pharmacy.

Dillemann, Georges, 'Le Costume des professeurs des facultés de pharmacie', Produits et problèmes pharmaceutiques, 19 (1964), pp. 314-20. A shorter version of the material covered in the author's article in Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie.

Dillemann, Georges, 'Le Costume universitaire', Bulletin de liaison de l'Association des Amis du Musée de la Pharmacie, 13 (1988), pp. 41-53. A survey of the dress prescribed for each faculty in the Napoleonic regulations and how it developed. Medicine and Pharmacy are given more space than other faculties.

Dragčeviċ, Zvonko, et al., 'Ceremonial Academic Gowns of the University of Zagreb: Idea to a Finished Product Path', International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, 17 (2005), pp. 150-60. The abstract reads: 'To design, develop and construct specific garment designs for use in Croatia as academic gowns using advanced engineering principles.'

Dragčeviċ, Zvonko, and Potočiċ Matkoviċ, Vesna Marija, 'Formal Academic Gowns of the University of Zagreb', Tekstil, 48 (1999), pp. 94-98.

Drakeman, Donald L., '"Peculiar Habits": Academic Costumes at Princeton University', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 59-79.

Druitt, Herbert, A Manual of Costume as Illustrated by Monumental Brasses (London: Alexander Moring, 1906; reprinted Bath: Kingsmead Reprints, 1970). Chapter 2 is entitled 'Of Academical Costume on Brasses', pp. 119-42.

Dunkley, Clifford, 'J.W. Burgon and the Eponymous Hood: A Trawl through Oxford University Archives', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 31-33. Discovers that the Archives are silent on the introduction of the Burgon shape, but that there is evidence of an abandoned set of reforms to Oxford academical dress about which nothing is known and which requires more research.

Dunkley, Clifford, 'Academic Dress of the University of Leicester', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 11 (2011), pp. 59-75.

Dutton, K. R., Academic Dress: A Brief Guide to its Origins and Development (Newcastle, NSW: Australian Federation of University Women, Hunter Valley Branch, and Convocation of the University of Newcastle, Australia, 1983). A good account of the subject with numerous illustrations in the text.

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Ealand, Charles Aubrey (ed.), Athena: A Year-book of the Learned World - the English-Speaking Nations, Vol. I [no more published] (London: A. & C. Black, 1920). Contains details of many institutions' academical dress, apparently drawn from their regulations or calendars. Frank Haycraft seems not to have known this work when he published the three editions of his Degrees and Hoods later in the 1920s.

Edwards, George, Omnium ordinium [sic] habituumque academicorum exemplaria ([Oxford: the engraver, 1674]), copper engravings, set of twelve plates including a title page with the wording: 'Reverendis et Erudis Viris in Theologia Med|icina, et Jure Civili | DOCTORIBUS | ACADEMIAE OXONIENSIS, | Hac, omnium Ordinium [sic] Habituumque | Academicorum Exemplaria, | quâ per est Observantia | D. D. Georgius Edwards'. Photographs of the engravings can be viewed on English Heritage's ViewFinder website by entering 'George Edwards' in the search box.

Edwards, George, Habitus academicorum Oxoniesium a doctore ad servientem (London: I. [John] Oliver, [c. 1680]). A reprint of the 1674 issue, with different wording on the title page.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th edition (1910/11), 'Robes'.

Erwin, John, History of Academic Costume in America (Albany, NY, [1934]).

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Fleming, Colin A. M., 'The Academical Dress of the University of Stirling, 1967-2006', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 6 (2006), pp. 54-76.

*Fleming, Colin A. M., Malachite and Silver: Academic Dress of the University of Stirling (London: Burgon Society, 2009). A fully illustrated booklet that describes Stirling's academic dress and its history, as well as its graduation ceremonies and ceremonial symbols.

Fleming, William Henry, The Protestant Standards of the Church of England: Sermon Preached at Christ Church Chislehurst, July 29th, 1877, with an Appendix Respecting the Use of the Academical Gown in the Pulpit (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1877).

Fox, Anthony W., and Cook, Dee, 'The Mastery of Midwifery of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 81-90. The authors examine documents recording the design of the robes for the MMSA by Dr Cecil Wall in 1929 and describe, with illustrations, three specimens preserved in Apothecaries' Hall, one from the 1930s and two from the 1980s.

Franklin, Charles A. H. See Franklyn, Charles A. H..

Franklyn, Charles A. H., University Hoods & Gowns [illustrated by Bt-Major A. V. Wheeler Holohan,], a set of twenty-five large cigarette cards (Bristol: W. D. & H. O. Wills, 1926). Franklyn's text on the back of the cards gives some useful insights into colours used in the 1920s, but see the commentary and corrections in Nicholas Groves et al., 'Popularizing University Hoods and Gowns: Wills's Cigarette Cards, 1926', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 7 (2007), pp. 48-74.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., Academic Costume (Oxford: The Oxonian Press, 1930). Reprinted, with additions, from The Oxford Magazine, 48, number 11 (6 February 1930), pp. 423-28, and number 12 (13 February 1930), pp. 464-67. A brief survey of contemporary academical dress, with characteristically critical comments (in the original and the added text) about the robes of some universities.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., 'Robes' in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th edition (1941 revision) and subsequent editions until 1970.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., 'Academical Dress: A Brief Sketch from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Century, with Especial Reference to Doctors', The Medical World, 66, number 24 (31 July 1942), pp. 465-68. Reprinted in Oxford, 9, number 1 (Winter 1946/47), pp. 78-85.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., 'The Chimere and Convocation Habit', Mid-Sussex Times, 30 December 1942.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., Academical Dress from the Middle Ages to the Present Day, Including Lambeth Degrees (Lewes: privately printed by W. E. Baxter, Ltd, 1970). See the note in the Introduction to this Bibliography.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., 'Academic Dress, History of', in International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, edited by Asa S. Knowles, 10 vols (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978), Vol. I, pp. 20-24. A sensible article covering the key features from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century. Very similar to the author's 1942 article.

Franklyn, Charles A. H., and Rogers, Frederick R. S., 'Dress of the Clergy', a series of six short articles on aspects of clerical and academical dress, Parson and Parish, Nos 12-18 (October 1951-April 1953). The articles treat the following topics: I - 'Introduction' (No. 12, pp. 16-17); II - 'Correct Dress of Bishops' (No. 13, pp. 12-14); III - 'Deans, Archdeacons, Canons, Rural Deans and Priests' (No. 14, pp. 27-28); IV - 'Chimeres and Habits' (No. 15, pp. 27-30); V - 'The Hood and the Almuce' (No. 16, pp. 31-35); VI - 'Processions' (No. 17, pp. 29-30); and in addition there are stinging replies by Franklyn and Rogers to two letters from correspondents who had the temerity to question points in earlier articles (No. 18, pp. 20-21).

Fröberg, Kerstin, 'Through the Needle's Eye; Or How I Became a Robemaker', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 11 (2011), pp. 6-7.

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Galino Mateos, M. T., et al., Catálogo de orientaciones sobre el uso del traje académico y sus colores (Alicante: Asociación para el Estudio y la Investigación del Protocolo Universitario, 2008). Includes text of Saravia González, et al., 'Traje ...'.

Gall, Franz, Die Insignien der Universität Wien, Studien zur Geschichte der Universität Wien, 4 (Graz: Herman Böhlaus Nachf., 1965). Contains a chapter giving an account of the old faculty colours used in Vienna, the suppression of academical dress in the eighteenth century, and its reintroduction in the early twentieth century.

Gibson, Strickland, Statuta Antiqua Universitatis Oxoniensis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931). 'The documentary corner-stone' (Hargreaves-Mawdsley).

Gibson, William, 'The Regulation of Undergraduate Academic Dress at Oxford and Cambridge, 1660-1832', *Burgon Society Annual, 2004, pp. 26-41.

Gibson, William, 'Academic Dress in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 9-12.

Gibson, William, '"The remembrance whereof is pleasant": A Note on Walter Pope's Role in the Attempt to Abolish Academic Dress during the Commonwealth', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 10 (2010), pp. 43-46.

Gibson, William, and Groves, Nicholas, 'The Origins of the University of Wales Robes', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 91-97. This study of contemporary newspaper reports follows the deliberations about robes for the new University of Wales in the 1890s, including the revelation that the use of shot silks in the hoods was first proposed by Lady Verney.

Gledhill, Nicholas, 'Academical Dress at the University of Sheffield: A Timeline', *Burgon Society Annual, 2004, pp. 49-52. An extract from the author's submission for the FBS.

*Goff, Philip, University of London Academic Dress (London: University of London Press, 1999). An illustrated book presenting a brief history of academical dress in general, the development of London robes in particular and a catalogue comprising coloured diagrams of all London hoods current at the time of publication. A separate sheet is now provided as an insert to show amendments to the London scheme, following the abolition of Convocation in 2003.

Goff, Philip, 'Academical Dress in the University of Westminster', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 37-62. A unique account of the designing of academical dress for a new university.

Goff, Philip, 'A Dress without a Home: The Unadopted Academic Dress of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 1923-24', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 10 (2010), pp. 71-98.

Gradus ad Cantabrigiam; or New University Guide to the Academical Customs, and Colloquial or Cant Terms Peculiar to the University of Cambridge (London: John Hearne, 1824). Contains four plates by 'C.A.R.' showing Cambridge academical dress somewhat caricatured.

Grant, John N., 'Many Coloured Coats: The Systems of Academical Dress in Nova Scotian Universities', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 183-99.

Grant, John N., 'The "Canadian Tradition" of Academical Costume in Nova Scotia: The Dalhousie University Model', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 200-12.

Green, V. H. H., 'The University and Social Life', Chapter 11 in The History of the University of Oxford, Vol. V, The Eighteenth Century, edited by L.S. Sutherland and L.G. Mitchell (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986). The disputes over undergraduate academical dress in the period are treated on pp. 317-27.

Grignion, C., and another, copper engravings, twenty-five plates after drawings by W. Huddesford and J. Taylor [Oxford, 1770] intended to accompany the 1770 Oxford statutes on academical dress. Twenty-four of them are engraved by Grignion; the twenty-fifth (Pro-Proctor in profile) by another hand. Photographs of the engravings can be viewed on English Heritage's ViewFinder website by entering 'Grignion' in the search box.

Groves, Nicholas, 'Towards a Standard Terminology for Describing Academic Dress', *Burgon Society Annual, 2001, pp. 9-12.

*Groves, Nicholas, The Academical Robes of Saint David's College Lampeter (1822-1971) (Lampeter: University of Wales, Lampeter, 2001). An illustrated booklet tracing the history of robes at Lampeter and reviewing the evidence from robemakers' workbooks and published material.

Groves, Nicholas, 'Who May Wear the "Literate's Hood"?', *Burgon Society Annual, 2002, pp. 15-16.

*Groves, Nicholas, Key to the Identification of Academic Hoods of the British Isles (London: Burgon Society, 2002; 2nd edition, 2003; 3rd edition, 2008; 4th edition, 2010).

Groves, Nicholas, 'Evolution of Hood Patterns', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 18-23. An illustrated article tracing the changes in the shape of hoods that have led to the variety of patterns in use in British and Irish universities today.

Groves, Nicholas, 'Reclothing Curwen', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 34-36. Newly designed robes for the Curwen College of Music.

*Groves, Nicholas, Theological Colleges: Their Hoods and Histories (London: Burgon Society, 2004).

Groves, Nicholas, 'Historical English Academic Robes: A Basis for a "National" System', *Burgon Society Annual, 2004, pp. 59-62. The simple scheme common to Oxford, Cambridge, TCD and Durham, before it was complicated by London in the mid-nineteenth century could serve as the basis of a 'national' scheme if one were wanted.

*Groves, Nicholas, The Academical Dress of the University of East Anglia (London: Burgon Society, 2005). An illustrated booklet describing the scheme of robes at UEA designed by Cecil Beaton and modifications introduced subsequently.

Groves, Nicholas, '"A Hood for the Minister": Some Thoughts on Academic Hoods as Recorded in Eighteenth- and Early-Nineteenth-Century Church Inventories', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 59-63.

Groves, Nicholas, '"With Velvet Facings": The Original London Robes', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 76-79. Describes the University of London scheme of academical dress in force from 1844 until the early 1860s.

Groves, Nicholas, 'Masters of Grammar: A Forgotten Degree', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 6 (2006), pp. 49-53.

Groves, Nicholas (with Bruce Christianson, William Gibson and Alex Kerr), 'Popularizing University Hoods and Gowns: Wills's Cigarette Cards, 1926', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 7 (2007), pp. 48-74. The complete set of twenty-five cards reproduced with Charles Franklyn's text and a parallel critical commentary.

Groves, Nicholas, 'An Early Nineteenth-Century Oxford DCL Robe', Burgon Notes, Autumn 2008, pp. 2-3. Note about a full-dress robe accompanied by a black velvet bonnet, white gloves and an odd ermine scarf preserved in the archives at Lampeter.

Groves, Nicholas, 'The Use of the Academic Hood in Quire', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 98-105. Starting from an examination of historical practice, the author suggests that arguments against the use of the hood in quire have no basis in fact, and that, if anything, its use is probably required at all services in the Church of England, at least for graduates.

*Groves, Nicholas (ed.), Shaw's Academical Dress of Great Britain and Ireland [3rd edition], 2 vols (London: The Burgon Society, 2011-14). Vol. I: Universities and Other Degree-Awarding Bodies (2011). Vol. II: Non-Degree-Awarding Bodies (2014). The standard work. Supersedes George Shaw's Academical Dress and includes 50 pages of introduction and background and nearly 600 pages comprising a comprehensive catalogue.

Groves, Nicholas, 'Revisions to the Academic Dress of the University of Malta (L-Università ta' Malta)', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 11 (2011), pp. 91-107. The author won a competition to submit a proposal for new robes for the University of Malta. This is an account of the process from initial designs to the first use of the robes.

Groves, Nicholas, and Christianson, Bruce, 'Wearing Mummy's Clothes: An Introduction to Academical Archaeology', *Burgon Society Annual, 2004, pp. 42-43. Observes that the academical dress adopted by (former) British colonies and dominions potentially provides an archaeological record of UK academical dress; and proposes a methodology for generating hypotheses for further investigation.

*Groves, Nicholas, and Kersey, John, Academical Dress of Music Colleges and Societies of Musicians in the United Kingdom, with Notes on Degrees and Diplomas in Music of Certain Other Institutions (London: Burgon Society, 2002). An illustrated booklet.

Günther, R.T., A Description of Brasses and Other Funeral Monuments in the Chapel of Magdalen College (Oxford: Horace Hart, 1914, reprinted in The Magdalen College Register, n.s. 8 (1915)). The Preface includes an important note on medieval academical dress by F.E. Brightman.

Gutch, J. W. G., 'University Hoods', Notes & Queries, 2nd series, 6 (1858), pp. 211-12. Draws together material gathered from other contributors to Notes & Queries and the author's own researches. Significant information laid out in tabular form about mid-nineteenth-century colours.

H

Haines, Herbert, A Manual of Monumental Brasses, Comprising an Introduction to the Study of These Memorials and a List of Those Remaining in the British Isles, 2 vols (Oxford: Parker, 1861; reprinted, with an Introduction, Biographical Note and Bibliography by Richard J. Busby, Bath: Adams & Dart, 1970). The first systematic study of monumental brasses, this work includes a brief section on academical dress.

Hargreaves-Mawdsley, W. N., 'Academical Dress', Oxford Magazine, 76, no. 6 (21 November 1957), pp. 132-34, and no. 7 (28 November 1957), p. 148. A very clear thumbnail sketch of Oxford dress and its history in just over fifteen hundred words.

Hargreaves-Mawdsley, W. N., A History of Academical Dress in Europe until the End of the Eighteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963; reprinted Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1978). The standard work. Includes an excellent annotated bibliography. Review by Charles A. H. Franklyn, Oxford, 19, number 1 (December 1963), pp. 102-04. See also: Alex Kerr, 'Hargreaves-Mawdsley's History of Academical Dress and the Pictorial Evidence for Great Britain and Ireland: Notes and Corrections', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 106-50.

Harraden, Richard, Costume of the Various Orders in the University of Cambridge (Cambridge: Harraden, [1805]). Includes fifteen coloured plates in line and stipple by J. Whessell after R[ichard] Harraden. Some of the plates can be viewed on the Costumer's Manifesto website.

Harraden, R. B., Illustrations of the University of Cambridge, &c. Represented in a Series of Engravings of Architectural and Picturesque Views (Cambridge: R. B. Harraden, 1830). Includes two large hand-coloured plates with the titles 'Costume of the University of Cambridge - Graduates' and 'Costume of the University of Cambridge - Undergraduates'.

Hartley, Dorothy, Mediæval Costume and Life: A Review of Their Social Aspects, Arranged under Various Classes and Workers, with Instructions for Making Numerous Types of Dress, with an introduction and notes by Francis M. Kelly (London: Batsford, 1931). Includes a design for a clerk's dress.

Hauler, Thorsten E., 'Academical Dress in Germany: Part I - A Historical Outline and the Development of a New System', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 13-35.

Haycraft, Frank W., The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities and Colleges, 1st edition (Ware, Herts.: privately printed by Jennings & Bewley, 1923). Haycraft's work must be used with caution, as there appears to be a number of inaccuracies. Nonetheless, it is useful for a survey of hoods current in the 1920s.

Haycraft, Frank W., The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities and Colleges, 2nd edition (London and Cheshunt: privately printed by Cheshunt Press, 1924).

Haycraft, Frank W., The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities and Colleges, 3rd edition (London and Cheshunt: privately printed by Cheshunt Press, 1927).

Haycraft, Frank W., The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities and Colleges, 4th edition, revised and enlarged by E.W. Scobie Stringer (Cheshunt: privately printed by Cheshunt Press, 1948). The catalogue of hoods is fuller (and no doubt more accurate) than in earlier editions, but the introduction contains a number of errors. Review by Charles A. H. Franklyn, Theology, 52 (1949), pp. 232-33.

Haycraft, Frank W., The Degrees and Hoods of the World's Universities and Colleges, 5th edition, revised and enlarged by Frederick R.S. Rogers, Charles A.H. Franklyn, George W. Shaw and Hugh Alexander Boyd (Lewes: privately printed by W.E. Baxter, Ltd, 1972). This edition is completely recast. Franklyn edited the contributors' material, adding his own characteristically opinionated comments.

Hernández de Castro, Jerónimo, 'Influencia francesa en el establecimiento de los símbolos de identidad y dignidad en las universidades españolas en el siglo XIX', in Hernández Díaz, José María (ed.), Actas del Congreso Influencias Francesas en las Educaciones Española, Americana y Portuguesa Contemporáneas (1808-2008). III Conversaciones Pedagógicas Universidad de Salamanca (15 al 18 de octubre de 2008) (Salamanca: Ediciones Globablia Anthema, 2008), pp. 81-91. French influence on creation of symbols of authority and dignity in the Spanish university of the nineteenth century.

Hernández de Castro, Jerónimo, 'Academical Dress in Spanish Universities', Burgon Notes, 14 (Autumn 2010), pp. 5-6. The text of a short presentation given at the Society's Congregation in October 2010.

Heywood, James, A Collection of Statutes for the University and Colleges of Cambridge, Including Various Early Documents (London, 1840).

Heywood, James, Early Cambridge University and College Statutes in the English Language (London, 1855).

Heywood, James, Illustrations of the Principal English Universities (n.p., n.d. [after 1863]). Includes a number of the plates used in Huber's English Universities, and in addition one of a University of London ceremony by Buss.

Hodges, Laura F., Chaucer and Clothing: Clerical and Academic Costume in the General Prologue to the 'Canterbury Tales' (Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2005).

Hoffmann, Nicholas A., 'Crow's Feet and Crimson: Academic Dress at Harvard', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 38-58.

Hoodata. An occasional newsletter on academical hoods published between 1974 and 1981, edited by Alan Birt and later by Robin Rees. Every issue is being reprinted on-line in the library section of this website.

Hoppner, O. J., Academic Costume in America: A Compendium (Albany NY: Cotrell & Leonard, 1948, revised and reissued 1960). A booklet describing the introduction of the Intercollegiate Code in the US and its scheme of gowns, hoods and caps. Illustrated with coloured drawings.

Houston, Mary G., Medieval Costume in England and France: The Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries , A Technical History of Costume, 3 (London: Black, 1939). Includes a section on academical costume, with useful illustrations based on memorial brasses, pp. 153-57.

Huber, V. A., The English Universities, edited by F. Newman, 2 vols in 3 (London: Wm Pickering; and Manchester: Simms & Dinham, 1843). Includes a number of plates of academical dress and ceremonies by R. W. Buss, R. B. Harraden, Walker (after Buss), T. Picken (after Buss), and G. H. Adcock (after Buss).

Hülsen-Esch, Andrea von, Gelehrte im Bild: Repräsentation, Darstellung und Wahrnehmung einer sozialen Gruppe im Mittelalter, Veröffentlichungen des Max-Planck-Instituts für Geschichte, 201 (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006). Combining the methods of history and art history, this book gives an insight into the social position of scholars in medieval Italy and France and discusses the roots of group portraiture. It is profusely illustrated, providing a wealth of images of academical dress of the period.

Hyde, H., Costumes of the Various Orders in the University of Cambridge (London: H. Hyde, c.1850). A reissue of Whittock's c. 1847 booklet, but with some of the plates altered.

J

Jackson, Nicholas, 'The Development of Academic Dress in the University of Warwick', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 10-59.

James, M. R., The Chaundler MSS (London: The Roxburghe Club, 1916). Includes a facsimile and description of the important fifteenth-century drawing of the Warden and members of New College, Oxford.

K

Keenan, Oliver, 'How Can Academical Dress Survive in the Third Millennium?', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 10 (2010), pp. 99-125.

Kerr, Alex, 'Unrecorded Engravings of Oxford Academic Dress from the Early Nineteenth Century', *Burgon Society Annual, 2004, pp. 44-48. A unique set of engravings that seem never to have progressed beyond the proof stage.

Kerr, Alex, 'Layer upon Layer: The Evolution of Cassock, Gown, Habit and Hood as Academic Dress', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 42-58. Identifying the categories of garments used as academical dress in the late Middle Ages and the layers in which they were worn will make it easier to understand how these items evolved into the robes in use today.

Kerr, Alex, 'Hargreaves-Mawdsley's History of Academical Dress and the Pictorial Evidence for Great Britain and Ireland: Notes and Corrections', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 8 (2008), pp. 106-50.

Kerr, Alex, 'Academical Dress on Monumental Brasses in Cambridge', Burgon Notes, 12 (Spring 2010), pp. 3-4.

Kerr, Alex, 'The Turbulent History of Undergraduate Academic Dress', Burgon Notes, 17 (Summer 2011), pp. 2-3.

Kerr, Alex, 'Gowns Worn by MAs in Early-Seventeenth-Century England and the Curious Case of Thomas Thornton's Sleeves', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 72-85.

Kerr, Alex, 'Academic Dress on John Speed's Maps', Burgon Notes, 25 (Autumn, 2013), pp. 3-4.

Kinahan, Owen, and Grundlingh, Geoffrey, Academic Dress, Colours, Badges and Neckties of the University of Cape Town (Cape Town: University of Cape Town, 1989).

Kreussler, H. G., Beschreibung der Feierlichkeiten am Jubelfeste der Universität Leipzig, den 4. Dezember 1809 (1810). The frontispiece shows full-length images of the chancellor of the University of Leipzig and deans of four faculties in their robes.

L

Lacey, T. A., 'The Ecclesiastical Habit in England', Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 4.2 (1897; reissued in Vol. 4 as a book, 1900), pp. 126-34. Includes discussion of aspects of medieval academical dress.

Leonard, Gardner Cotrell, The Cap and Gown in America, Reprinted from the 'University Magazine' for December 1893; To which is Added an Illustrated Sketch of the Intercollegiate System of Academic Costume (Albany, NY: Cotrell & Leonard,1896). Leonard's influential article from the University Magazine gives a brief survey (pp. 2-7) of robes in use at various American colleges and universities in early 1890s. The second part (pp. 8-14) describes the Intercollegiate system in its earliest form. Illustrated with twenty-three photographs of contemporary gowns and hoods in use in the USA. Leonard acted as technical advisor to the commission that drew up the Intercollegiate code, which was adopted in 1895.

Leonard, Gardner Cotrell, Progress of the Intercollegiate System (privately published, 1896).

Leonard, Gardner Cotrell, 'Academic Costume', in Paul Monroe, ed., Cyclopedia of Education, 5 vols (New York: Macmillan, 1911), Vol. I, pp. 14-18. An interesting thumbnail sketch of the history of academical dress, a list of British robes, with details of Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh dress and a telling summary of how the Intercollegiate Code came into being. Contains two colour engravings showing British and American robes.

Lockmiller, David A., Scholars on Parade: Colleges, Universities, Costumes and Degrees (London: Macmillan, 1969). A study of the history, ceremonies and dress of American colleges and universities.

Loggan, David, Oxonia illustrata (Oxford: the engraver, 1675). Includes a copper engraving of academical dress: 'Habitus academici in Universitate Oxoniensi, pro sortis gradus aut muneris ratione gestari soliti, sive in quotidiano convictii, sive etiam in conventibus publicis, munirum concionibus, lecturis, disputationibus, congregationibus, convocationibus, comitiis &c.'. A panorama plate of thirty-seven cuts, comprising forty-two figures on four rows, all numbered (except 'Famuli') and with a key at the foot [Plate 10]. A photograph of the engraving can be viewed on English Heritage's ViewFinder website by entering 'Loggan' in the search box.

Loggan, David, Cantabrigia illustrata (Cambridge?: the engraver, [1688 or 1690?]). Includes a copper engraving of academical dress: 'Habitus academici in Universitate Cantabrigiensi, pro sortis gradus aut muneris ratione gestandi, sive in quotidiano convictii, sive etiam in conventibus publicis, &c.'. A panorama plate of twenty-seven cuts, comprising thirty-three figures on four rows, all numbered and with a key at the foot [Plate 7].

Lowe, Philip, Manchester Academic Dress: The Origins and Development of Academical Dress at the Victoria University of Manchester, 1880 to the Present Day (Manchester: John Rylands Library: 2002). A summary is given by Philip Lowe in *Burgon Society Annual, 2001, pp. 25-32.

Lundy, John K., 'Academical Dress of the Republic of South Africa, with Especial Reference to the University of Witwatersrand' (submission for the Fellowship of the Burgon Society, 2002).

Lundy, John K., 'Designing a College Trustee Gown', *Burgon Society Annual, 2003, pp. 30-31.

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McNairn, W. Harvey, 'American System of Academic Robes: College Colours', an article published in the University of Toronto Varsity, 19 November 1901.

Mallet, Charles Edward, A History of the University of Oxford, 3 vols (London: Methuen, 1924-27; reprinted New York: Barnes & Noble, 1968). Contains several references to academical dress.

Mausen, Yves, 'The Question of Ecclesiastical Influences on French Academic Dress', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 36-41. Concludes that the dress of the legal profession and academic canon lawyers exerted a stronger influence than ecclesiastical dress on the development of modern academic costume in France.

Mausen, Yves, '"Le Rouge assigné au costume des cours de justice": réglementation du costume des professeurs des facultés de droit et restauration universitaire', in Martial Mathieu, ed., De l'école de droit à la faculté de droit de Grenoble (1806-2000), La Pierre et l'écrit (Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 2007), pp. 85-94. Outlines the key features of French academic dress in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and describes the re-establishment of academic dress under Napoleon and how much his scheme owed to the Ancien Régime; then traces how the robes worn in law faculties developed in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, adoping the colour red in place of crimson as the faculty colour, borrowed from the dress of the courts of justice; ends with a plea for academic dress to be used more widely, and especially for the full dress (grand costume), to be allowed for all ranks within the teaching faculty.

Meiners, Christoph, 'Kurze Geschichte der Trachten und Kleider-Gesetze auf hohen Schulen', Göttingische akademische Annalen, 1 (Hanover: Helwing, 1804), pp. 201-54. A substantial paper tracing the history of academical dress from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century, with details of particular universities and quotations from original sources. A remarkable work for such an early date, and especially useful for German universities.

Mencl Bajs, Z., et al., 'Design of Academic Dress based on History of Costumes', Proceedings, 1st International Textile Clothing and Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 6th-9th October 2002.

Metcalfe, W., Costumes of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge: W. Metcalfe, n.d. [1862]). Single sheet folded map-wise inside a small board cover. The figures form a panorama after Whittock's c. 1843 set, but crudely drawn, with colouring and gilding even more crudely overprinted.

Meurs, Johannes van, Illustrium Hollandiae et Westfrisiae ordinum alma Academia Leidensis (Leiden: J. Marc and J. à Colster, 1614). Short biographies of University of Leiden professors, with engravings of head-and-shoulders portraits, many in academical dress. Some of the engravings were originally published in Swanenburg, Willem, Icones ad vivum delineate et expressae (Leiden, 1609) and Illustris Academia Lugd-Batava (Leiden, 1613).

Milner, T., 'Usage and Abusage: Time for a Gown Wearer's Charter?', Cambridge, No. 40 (Summer 1997), pp. 104-06.

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Neagu, I., and Florea, M., 'Aspects Regarding the Design of the Ceremony Robes of the "Lucian Blaga" University in Sibiu (Romania)', Annals of the University of Oradea: Fascicle of Textiles, Leatherwork, 13 (2) (2012), pp. 109-13.

Neveu, Bruno, 'Le Costume universitaire français: règles et usage', La Revue administrative, no. 293 (September/October, 1996), pp.485-96.

Neveu, Bruno, 'French University Dress: Regulations and Custom', a translation by Margaret Brown of the author's article 'Le Costume universitaire ...', *Burgon Society Annual, 2002, pp. 17-29.

Neveu, Bruno, 'Costume des juristes', in Dictionnaire de la culture juridique (Paris, 2003), pp. 309-13. Outlines the history of legal dress in France, and includes some points on academic dress.

Newton, Leonard E., 'Academic Dress Featured on Postage Stamps', Burgon Notes, Autumn 2008, pp. 3-4. A note about stamps of the UK, Antigua, Barbados, Jamaica, Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and New Zealand that illustrate academical dress.

Newton, Le[o]n[ard E.], Kenyatta University Academic Dress (Nairobi: Kenyatta University, 2011). A 16-page booklet, illustrated in colour throughout.

North, Susan, 'Academic Dress at Platt Hall, Manchester', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 123-24.

Notes & Queries, 2nd series. Notes by various contributors can be searched on the Internet Library of Early Journals website.

Nunes, A. M., Identidade(s) e moda: percursos contemporâneos da capa e batina e das insígnias dos Conimbricenses (Madrid: Bubok, 2013). The academic dress and insignia of the University of Coimbra.

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Oxford. Guide to the Oxford Degree Ceremony (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1949, reprinted 1963, 1967, etc.). A leaflet given to visitors at Oxford degree ceremonies.

Oxford. The Oxford Degree Ceremony: For the Information of Candidates (Oxford: Oxford University Press [1963 and reprinted]). A leaflet given to candidates at degree ceremonies.

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Pagès, André, 'Patrimoine et tradition vestimentaire de notre Ecole', Rabelais: la revue de la Faculté de Médecine de Montpellier-Nîmes, 2 (April-May, 2004), pp. 3-6, and 3 (November-December, 2005), pp. 3-6. A well-informed brief account, with illustrations from portraits, of the academic dress of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Montpellier from the Middle Ages to modern times, with some consideration of French academic dress generally. Free PDF downloads of the journal can be accessed.

Plank, Steven E., 'Academic Regalia at Oberlin: the Establishment and Dissolution of a Tradition' (submission for the Fellowship of the Burgon Society, 2002). An on-line version is available.

Polo Rodríguez, J. L. and Hernández de Castro, Jerónimo, Ceremonias y grados en la Universidad de Salamanca. Una aproximación al protocolo académico (Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, No. 74, 2004). A history of the graduation ceremony for the various degrees at the University of Salamanca, with a description of the academic dress and procedures currently in use.

Potočiċ Matkoviċ, Vesna Marija, et al., 'Jesuits Talars as a Source of Inspiration for the Manufacture of Academical Gown for the University of Zagreb', Disputatio Philosophica: International Journal on Philosophy and Religion, 1 (2003), pp. 177-86.

Potočiċ Matkoviċ, Vesna Marija, et al., 'Official Garments of Croatian Teachers and Students through History' Tekstil, 57 (2003), pp. 516-24.

Potočiċ Matkoviċ, Vesna Marija, Soljacic, Ivo, and Mencl Bajs, Zlatka, 'The History of the Dress Code at the University of Zagreb: From Jesuit Talars to Newly Designed Academic Gowns', Costume, 42 (2008), pp. 101-10. The list of references includes several articles in Croatian about academic and official university dress and insignia.

Pyne, W[illiam] H., Costume of Great Britain (London: William Miller, 1808). Includes coloured engraving 'No. 22' [Doctor of Civil Law], by Pyne.

Pyne, W[illiam] H., ed., The World in Miniature: England, Scotland and Ireland, 4 vols (London: Ackermann, 1827). Includes copies, reduced in size, of Agar's plates from Combe's History of the University of Oxford and History of the University of Cambridge.

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Rashdall, Hastings, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, new edition edited by F.M. Powicke and A.B. Emden, 3 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1936, reprinted 1997). Academical dress is treated specifically in Vol. III, pp. 385-93.

Reicke, Emil, Der Gelehrte in der deutschen Vergangenheit, 1st edition, Monographien zur deutschen Kulturgeschichte, 7 (Leipzig: Eugen Diederichs, 1900). Includes copies of 130 engravings from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, many of them showing scholars in academical dress.

Reicke, Emil, Der Gelehrte in der deutschen Vergangenheit, 2nd edition, Die deutschen Stände in Einzeldarstellungen, 7 (Jena: Eugen Diederichs, 1924). There have also been several photographic reprints by various publishers (c. 1970, 1979, 1982).

Reicke, Emil, Lehrer und Unterrichtswesen in der deutschen Vergangenheit, 1st edition, Monographien zur deutschen Kulturgeschichte, 9 (Leipzig: Eugen Diederichs, 1901). Like the previous title, includes copies of 130 engravings from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, several of them showing teachers in academical dress.

Reicke, Emil, Lehrer und Unterrichtswesen in der deutschen Vergangenheit, 2nd edition, Die deutschen Stände in Einzeldarstellungen, 9 (Jena: Eugen Diederichs, 1924). There have also been photographic reprints by the publishers, now in Düsseldorf and Cologne (1971, 1979).

*Robarts, Les. The Vice-Chancellor's Ad Hoc Committee: The University of West Bromwich Considers the Place of Academic Dress in a Contemporary University: A Dramatic Discussion, with Three Papers as Appendices, Special supplement to Transactions of the Burgon Society, Volume 11 (London: The Burgon Society, 2012). An exploration of the meanings of academical dress in the modern world in the form of a play. The author invents a university and creates a committee of its staff to decide if robes are still relevant: a post-modern analysis of the topic.

Robinson, N. F., 'The Black Chimere of Anglican Prelates: A Plea for Its Retention and Proper Use', Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 4.3 (1898; reissued in Vol. 4 as a book, 1900), pp. 181-220. Contains a detailed discussion of the origins of the convocation habit and an analytical description of drawings of fifteenth-century academical dress in the Chaundler MS then at New College, Oxford, now in the Bodleian Library.

Robinson, N. F., 'The Pileus Quadratus: An Enquiry into the Relation of the Priest's Square Cap to the Common Academical Catercap and to the Judicial Corner-Cap', Transactions of the St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, 5.1 (1901; reissued in Vol. 5 as a book, 1906), pp. 1-16.

Rogers, Frederick R. S., The Story of University Degrees and Academical Dress (Sutton, Surrey: privately printed by The Sutton Press, 1952). A brief survey of the subject.

Rogers, Frederick R. S., 'The Origin and Development of Academic Costume and its Bearing on the Choir Office Robes of the Anglican Clergy' (unpublished MA dissertation, University of Bristol, 1962).

Rogers, J. E., Academic Caps, Hoods and Gowns (n.p., 1911). A booklet about the US Intercollegiate Code.

Ross, Alan J., 'Togas gradui et facultati competentes: The Creation of New Doctoral Robes at Oxford, 1895-1920', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 10 (2010), pp. 47-70.

Ryman, James, The Costumes of the Members of the University of Oxford (Oxford: Ryman, c. 1860). A version of Whittock's booklet of the same title, but with a different set of plates.

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Sandys, J. E., 'Ancient University Ceremonies', in Fasciculus Ioanni Willis Clark dicatus (Cambridge: privately printed, 1909). Describes ceremonies in the University of Cambridge.

Saravia González, Francisca de Paula, Hernández de Castro, Jerónimo, and Galino Mateos, María Teresa, 'Traje académico: presente y futuro (mayo 2008)' is available on-line. This article discusses the present situation in Spanish universities and offers suggestions about academic dress in the context of European Higher Education in the future.

Saravia González, Francisca de Paula, Hernández de Castro, Jerónimo, 'Taller sobre el uso del traje académico', in Actas del VI Encuentro de Responsables de Protocolo y Relaciones Institucionales de las Universidades Españolas. Universidad de Alicante 26 de abril de 2007, is available on-line in a Word or PDF format.

Sayer, R., or H. Overton, after Loggan, copper engraving, plate of Cambridge academical dress: 'The Academical Habits of the several Degrees and Offices in the University of Cambridge 1748'. Panorama of twenty-six figures on three rows each within an arch of an arcade formed by ornate Corinthian pillars with a curved label above giving the degree or office.

Schundenius, Karl Heinrich, Erinnerungen an die festlichen Tage der dritten Stiftungsfeyer der Akademie zu Wittenberg (Wittenberg: the author, 1803). Describes the tercentenary celebrations, processions and ceremonies of the University of Wittenberg, with incidental brief references to official and academical dress. Includes one engraving of the Rector Magnificus and a Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy.

Scott, Elizabeth, 'The BCC Numbering System: Back to the Future?', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 5 (2005), pp. 90-122. The two editions of the British Colour Council's Dictionary of Colour Standards have been used by many universities to designate the shades prescribed for facings and linings of their academical robes and hoods.

Scott, Elizabeth, 'Merging Traditions: Academic Dress and Nursing', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 6 (2006), pp. 77-125.

Shaw, G[eorge] W., Academical Dress of British Universities (Cambridge: Heffer, 1966). A catalogue of each university's robes. The opening section provides figures of the various shapes of gowns, hoods and caps. Review by Charles A.H. Franklyn, Oxford, 22, number 2 (December 1966), pp. 75-80.

Shaw, George W., Cambridge University Academical Dress, with Notes on Oxford Academical Dress (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, [1992]). A booklet illustrated with photographs of all Cambridge (and some Oxford) robes current at the time of publication.

Shaw, George W., Academical Dress of British and Irish Universities [2nd edition] (Chichester: Phillimore, 1995). A much enlarged edition of the author's 1966 book, including colour photographs of some robes. This edition, in its turn, has been superseded by Nicholas Groves (ed.), Shaw's Academical Dress [3rd edition].

Sheard, Kevin, Academic Heraldry in America, illustrations by Paul Wainio (Marquette: Northern Michigan College Press, 1962). Catalogues the system of colours used in academical hoods in the United States (not heraldry in the conventional sense).

Shrimpton, A. Thomas, Shrimpton's Series of the Costumes of the Members of the University of Oxford, [1st edition] (Oxford: T. and G. Shrimpton, [c. 1870]). Large, single sheet folded map-wise inside a small board cover. Contains eighteen figures in three rows of six, lithographed and hand coloured.

Shrimpton, A. Thomas, Shrimpton's Series of the Costumes of the Members of the University of Oxford, [2nd edition] (Oxford: A. T. Shrimpton; and London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co, [c. 1885]). Large, single sheet folded map-wise inside a small board cover. The figures are different from those in the first edition. Contains twenty-four figures in chromo-lithography.

Smagorinsky, Margaret, The Regalia of Princeton University: Pomp, Circumstance, and Accountrements [sic] of Academia (Princeton, N.J.: Office of Communications and Publications [of Princeton University], 1994).

Smith, Hugh H., 'Academic Dress and Insignia', in International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, edited by Asa S. Knowles, 10 vols (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978), Vol. I, pp. 3-20. A concise survey of modern academical dress worldwide.

Smith, Hugh, assisted by Kevin Sheard, Academic Dress and Insignia of the World: Gowns, Hats, Chains of Office, Hoods, Rings, Medals and Other Degree Insignia of Universities and Other Institutions of Learning , 3 vols (Cape Town: A A. Balkema, 1970). A monumental work of over 1,800 pages cataloguing robes and insignia of universities worldwide. This is the only published source of information on the academical dress of institutions in many countries.

Snyder, Henry L., Our College Colors: From the Histories of American Colleges and Universities (n.p. [Kutztown, PA]: Southern Publishing Company, 1949). Not on academical dress, but contains accounts of how each school chose its colours, which were often later used in academical hoods.

Southward, Douglas Ambrose, 'St Bees Theological College, 1816-1898: A Study of Academical Dress' (part of submission for the Fellowship of the Burgon Society, 2002).

Southward, Douglas Ambrose, 'Carlisle and Blackburn Diocesan Training Institute: Its Hood' (part of submission for the Fellowship of the Burgon Society, 2002).

Stokes, H. P., Ceremonies of the University of Cambridge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1927). Although anecdotal in style, this work contains some useful material.

Sullivan, Eugene, An Academic Costume Code and an Academic Ceremony Guide (American Council on Education), reprinted from American Universities and Colleges, 15th edition (Washington, DC, 1997). Also available on the American Council of Education website.

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Taylor, William B. S., A History of the University of Dublin, 1st, unfinished edition (London, [1819]). Contains two plates of academical dress by 'B. Del Sarto' after W.B. Taylor.

Taylor, William B. S., A History of the University of Dublin, 2nd, completed edition (London, 1845). Contains four plates, each showing two figures in academical dress, by E. Williams.

Thompson, Karen, Coupar, Sally-Anne, and Benner, Julie, '"Most I saw were very dirty, some very ragged and all of very coarse cloth": The Conservation of the Nineteenth-Century Student Gown in the Hunterian, University of Glasgow', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 36-45.

Touzeil-Divina, Mathieu, 'Réflexions sur un port honni: le costume universitaire', Un Dix juridique: le journal juridique gratuit fait par les étudiants de Paris-X et de Paris-I, 3 (November 2003), pp. 1 and 8. An amusing student piece on the role of academic robes in France as a uniform, and drawing parallels with the function of costume in opera. An on-line version of this article is available.

Toynbee, Arnold, A Study of History, 11 vols (Oxford: OUP, 1936-61), Vol. X (1954), pp. 50-59. Section on the origins of caps and hoods.

*Transactions of the Burgon Society (London: Burgon Society, 2005- ). Back issues are available from the Burgon Society Shop and on-line in the Transactions section of the Burgon Library.

Tsua, Charles Rupert, 'A Study of the History and Use of Lace on Academical Gowns in the United Kingdom and Ireland', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 12 (2012), pp. 103-27.

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'University Hoods', Boy's Own Paper, 26, number 25 (19 March 1904), pp. 413-14. A brief article introducing a large fold-out colour plate entitled 'Hoods of the Academical Degrees of the Universities of Great Britain & Ireland', which shows hoods and colours (some inaccurately) for thirteen universities. The weekly issues of the BOP were collected in the Boy's Own Annual; this article and the plate appear in the volume for 1903/04.

'University Hoods and Gowns' in Pears Cyclopaedia (London: A. & F. Pears, 1897- ).

'University Hoods and How to Make Them', Girl's Own Paper, 1, number 35 (25 August 1880), pp. 564-66. Significant evidence of hood shapes current in the late nineteenth century.

Uwins, Thomas. See Combe, William.

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Van der Aa, Pierre. See Beeverell, James.

Venables, D. R., and Clifford, R. E., Academic Dress of the University of Oxford, (Oxford: Shepherd & Woodward, 1957; 2nd edition, 1966; 3rd edition, 1972; 4th edition, 1975; 5th edition, 1979; 6th edition, 1985; 7th edition, 1993; 8th edition, 1998; 9th edition, 2008). A booklet describing Oxford dress, illustrated with colour photographs. The 6th, 7th and 8th editions were revised by John Venables and Philip Moss; the 9th edition was published with John Venables as author.

Vincent, W. D. F., The Cutter's Practical Guide to the Cutting All Kinds of Garments, Part 9; The Cutter's Practical Guide to Jacket Cutting and Making, Embracing Lounges, Reefers and Patrol Jacket in All Their Varieties; Also Including the Cutting and Making of Robes & Gowns (London: John Williamson, 1898). Includes a section (pp. 69-84) entitled: 'Cutting and Making Various Kinds of Robes, Gowns, Surplices, Hoods, Vestments, etc.' Images of this work can be found on the Costumer's Manifesto website.

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Wall, Cecil, 'The Lambeth Degrees', British Medical Journal, 2 (2 November 1935), 854-. Also issued separately as an offprint.

Walters, Helen, The Story of Caps and Gowns (Chicago: E.R. Moore Co, 1939, and reprinted several times). A booklet providing a brief history of academical dress in England and the introduction of the Intercollegiate Code in the US. Illustrated with reproductions of old engravings and modern photographs.

Weekes, Eleanor Truitt, 'The History of Academic Costume' (unpublished MA thesis, Boston University, 1958).

Wells, J., The Oxford Degree Ceremony (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906).

Whittock, Nathaniel, A Topographical and Historical Description of the University of Oxford, with Views of Churches, Colleges, Halls and Other Public Edifices and the Most Remarkable Remains of Ancient Buildings in the Vicinity of Oxford; to which is Added Correct Delineations of the Costume of the Members of the University, also issued simultaneously in a briefer form as The Microcosm of Oxford (London: Isaac Taylor Hinton, 1828, reprinted 1829). Includes five coloured lithographed plates of academical dress.

Whittock, Nathaniel, The Costumes of the Members of the University of Oxford, 1st edition (London: N. Whittock, [c. 1840]). A series of seventeen hand-coloured lithographed figures, each numbered and labelled in a strip folded concertina-wise inside a board cover. A 2nd edition (with a background of trees and Oxford skyline and with the trousers of the figures all coloured black) was issued c. 1853. Copies and versions of Whittock's work were published by other printers in the 1850s and 1860s.

Whittock, Nathaniel, The Costumes of the Members of the University of Cambridge, (London: N. Whittock, [c. 1843]). A series of forty-five hand-coloured lithographed figures in twenty-three cuts, each numbered and labelled in a strip folded concertina-wise, inside a board cover. Previously dated as c.1847, but a recently discovered example is inscribed 1843. Copies and versions of Whittock's work were published by other printers in the 1850s.

Wilder, Burt G., 'Is the "Academic Costume" Worth While?', Science, 37 (1913), pp. 178-79.

Williams, C. F. Abdy, A Short Historical Account of the Degrees in Music at Oxford and Cambridge, with a Chronological List of Graduates in That Faculty from the Year 1463 (London and New York: Novello, Ewer and Co., [1894]). Contains a short section on academical dress.

Wolgast, Stephen L., 'King's Crowns: The History of Academic Dress at King's College and Columbia University', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 80-137.

Wolgast, Stephen L. (compiler), 'The Intercollegiate Code of Academic Costume: An Intoduction', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 9-37.

Wolgast, Stephen L. (compiler), 'Timeline of Developments in Academic Dress in North America', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 9 (2009), pp. 213-18.

Wolgast, Stephen L., 'Observing Commencement in the United States of America', Burgon Notes, 12 (Spring 2010), pp. 1-2, and 13 (Summer 2010), pp. 2-3.

Wolgast, Stephen L., 'The Demise of "Faculty" Meanings in US Hoods and a Manifesto for Change', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 11 (2011), pp. 76-90.

Wood, Anthony. See Clark, Andrew.

Wood, Thomas William, Ecclesiastical and Academical Colours (London and Derby: Bemrose & Sons, [1875]). Contains a catalogue of hoods for the universities and theological colleges in the British Isles and the colonies in the 1870s.

Wood, Thomas William, The Degrees, Gowns and Hoods of the British, Colonial, Indian and American Universities and Colleges (London: Thomas Pratt & Co., [1882 or 1883]); reissued with four pages of corrections and additions [c. 1889]). A much expanded version of the second part of the author's Ecclesiastical and Academical Colours, and the forerunner of the catalogues of Haycraft, Shaw, and Smith.

Wordsworth, C., Social Life at the English Universities in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1874). Contains information about undergraduate academical dress of the period.

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Zellick, Graham, 'Lambeth Academic Dress and the University of London', *Transactions of the Burgon Society, 7 (2007), pp. 39-47. An account of an exchange of letters between the author when Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the University of London and Lambeth Palace about the decision not to adopt London academic dress for those having Lambeth degrees conferred on them by Archbishop Carey.